A magnetic twist to graphene

Electrons in materials have properties known as 'spin', which is responsible for various properties, the best known of which is magnetism. Permanent magnets, such as those used for refrigerator doors, have to align all spins in their electrons in the same direction. Scientists refer to this behavior as ferromagnetism, and research fields of trying to manipulate spin as sphinctronics.

Down in the quantum world, spins can be arranged in more exotic ways, giving rise to depressed states and entangled magnets. Interestingly, a property similar to spin, known as "valley", appears in graphene material. This unique feature has given rise to the field of valitronics, which aims to exploit the Valley property for emerging physics and information processing, which sphinctronics relies heavily on pure spin physics.

"Electronics will potentially allow encoding information in quantum valley degrees of freedom, similar to how electronics do with charge and spintronics with spin." Professor Jose Lado, from the Department of Physics of Applied and one of the authors of the work, explains.

"What's more, the Valetronic device will offer a dramatic increase in processing speed compared to electronics, and with much greater stability towards magnetic field noise than spintronic devices."

Structures made of rotated, ultra-thin materials provide a rich solid state platform for designing novel devices. In particular, slightly twisted graphene layers have recently been shown to have exciting unconventional properties, which may eventually give rise to a new family of materials for quantum technologies.

These unconventional states that are already being discovered depend on electric charge or spin. The open question is whether the valley can also give birth to its family of exciting states.

Creating Content for Valitronics

Towards this goal, it is revealed that traditional ferromagnets play an important role, transporting graphene to locations in valley physics. In a recent work, Ph.D. Student Tobias Wolf, Proc. Oded Zilberberg and Gianni Blatter at ETH Zurich, and Prof. at Aalto University. Jose Lado showed a new direction for correlated physics in magnetic van der Waals materials.

The team showed that baking two small graphene loaves between ferromagnetic insulators provides a unique setting for new electronic states. The combination of ferromagnets, Graphene's twist engineering, and relativistic effects forces the "valley" property to dominate the behavior of electrons in the material.

In particular, the researchers showed how these valley-only states can be electrically tuned, providing a material platform in which valley-only states can be generated. Building on top of recent successes in spintronics and van der Waals materials, valley physics in magnetic twisted van der Waals multilayers opens the door to a new realm of correlated twisted valitronics.

"The performance of these states represents the starting point towards new foreign entangled valley states." Professor Lado said, "Ultimately, the engineering of these valley states can allow quantum tangled valley fluids and partial quantum valley hall states to come true.

These two foreign states have not yet met in nature, and a potential new Will open up exciting opportunities for Graphene. A platform based for topological quantum computing. "

The paper, "Spontaneous Valley Spiral in Magnetically Encapsulated Twisted Billionaire Graphene" is published in the journal Physical Relators.

Schoof, a graduate student in the laboratory of Peter Walter, PhD, a renowned scientist specializing in protein sorting and cellular membranes, was part of a small team on a quixotic mission: SARS-CoV-2, to stabilize novel coronoviruses Causes, using a synthetic version of small antibodies originally discovered in llama and camel.

These "nanobodies", as they are known, came from Ashish Manglik's UC San Francisco Lab, MD, PhD, an up-and-coming protein scientist who had spent the last three years building a vast library of nanobiodics and their Developing new ways to exploit unusual qualities.

During the past month, Schoof spent most of his waking hours cloistering at UCSF's Mission Bay campus in an otherwise vacant laboratory complex. This was the height of the K Spring 2020 Surge, and only essential health care staff and those working on epidemics-related science were allowed into university facilities.

Schoof had dragged his roommate, a fellow grade student named Reuben Saunders, to work with him on the project. Subscribing on boiled dumplings and gallons of tea, they were sorting through 2 billion nanobodies in Mangalik's library, hoping to identify and stabilize a molecule capable of flashing the deadly SARS-CoV-2. Were in Now, finally, Shoef is convinced that he has achieved his first major success.

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